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Ref Type Journal Article
PMID (32540409)
Authors Negrao MV, Raymond VM, Lanman RB, Robichaux JP, He J, Nilsson MB, Ng PKS, Amador BE, Roarty EB, Nagy RJ, Banks KC, Zhu VW, Ng C, Chae YK, Clarke JM, Crawford JA, Meric-Bernstam F, Ignatius Ou SH, Gandara DR, Heymach JV, Bivona TG, McCoach CE
Title Molecular Landscape of BRAF-Mutant NSCLC Reveals an Association Between Clonality and Driver Mutations and Identifies Targetable Non-V600 Driver Mutations.
Journal Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
Vol 15
Issue 10
Date 2020 10
URL
Abstract Text Approximately 4% of NSCLC harbor BRAF mutations, and approximately 50% of these are non-V600 mutations. Treatment of tumors harboring non-V600 mutations is challenging because of functional heterogeneity and lack of knowledge regarding their clinical significance and response to targeted agents.We conducted an integrative analysis of BRAF non-V600 mutations using genomic profiles of BRAF-mutant NSCLC from the Guardant360 database. BRAF mutations were categorized by clonality and class (1 and 2: RAS-independent; 3: RAS-dependent). Cell viability assays were performed in Ba/F3 models. Drug screens were performed in NSCLC cell lines.A total of 305 unique BRAF mutations were identified. Missense mutations were most common (276, 90%), and 45% were variants of unknown significance. F468S and N581Y were identified as novel activating mutations. Class 1 to 3 mutations had higher clonality than mutations of unknown class (p < 0.01). Three patients were treated with MEK with or without BRAF inhibitors. Patients harboring G469V and D594G mutations did not respond, whereas a patient with the L597R mutation had a durable response. Trametinib with or without dabrafenib, LXH254, and lifirafenib had more potent inhibition of BRAF non-V600-mutant NSCLC cell lines than other MEK, BRAF, and ERK inhibitors, comparable with the inhibition of BRAF V600E cell line.In BRAF-mutant NSCLC, clonality is higher in known functional mutations and may allow identification of variants of unknown significance that are more likely to be oncogenic drivers. Our data indicate that certain non-V600 mutations are responsive to MEK and BRAF inhibitors. This integration of genomic profiling and drug sensitivity may guide the treatment for BRAF-mutant NSCLC.

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Molecular Profile Treatment Approach
Gene Name Source Synonyms Protein Domains Gene Description Gene Role
Therapy Name Drugs Efficacy Evidence Clinical Trials
Drug Name Trade Name Synonyms Drug Classes Drug Description
Gene Variant Impact Protein Effect Variant Description Associated with drug Resistance
BRAF N581Y missense gain of function - predicted BRAF N581Y lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). N581Y results in increased cell viability in culture (PMID: 32540409), and therefore, is predicted to lead to a gain of Braf protein function.
Molecular Profile Indication/Tumor Type Response Type Therapy Name Approval Status Evidence Type Efficacy Evidence References
BRAF G469A lung adenocarcinoma conflicting Trametinib Preclinical - Patient cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, cells derived from a lung adenocarcinoma patient harboring BRAF G469A were sensitive to treatment with Mekinist (trametinib) in culture, demonstrating inhibition of cell growth (PMID: 32540409). 32540409
BRAF G469V lung adenocarcinoma no benefit Dabrafenib + Trametinib Case Reports/Case Series Actionable In a clinical case study, a previously treated lung adenocarcinoma patient harboring BRAF G469V demonstrated progression after 9 weeks of treatment with the combination of Mekinist (trametinib) and Tafinlar (dabrafenib) (PMID: 32540409). 32540409
BRAF L597R lung adenocarcinoma predicted - sensitive Dabrafenib + Trametinib Case Reports/Case Series Actionable In a clinical case study, a patient with lung adenocarcinoma harboring BRAF L597R demonstrated clinical improvement and a tumor response at 13 weeks with resolution of hepatic metastasis and mediastinal lymphadenopathy when treated with the combination of Tafinlar (dabrafenib) and Mekinist (trametinib), and at the 12 month follow up remained on treatment, showing no disease progression (PMID: 32540409). 32540409
BRAF L597V lung adenocarcinoma sensitive BGB-283 Preclinical - Patient cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, cells derived from a lung adenocarcinoma patient harboring BRAF L597V were sensitive to treatment with Lifirafenib (BGB-283) in culture, demonstrating inhibition of cell growth (PMID: 32540409). 32540409
BRAF L597V lung adenocarcinoma resistant LY3214996 Preclinical - Patient cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, cells derived from a lung adenocarcinoma patient harboring BRAF L597V were resistant to treatment with LY3214996 in culture (PMID: 32540409). 32540409
BRAF L597V lung adenocarcinoma resistant Ulixertinib Preclinical - Patient cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, cells derived from a lung adenocarcinoma patient harboring BRAF L597V were resistant to treatment with Ulixertinib (BVD-523) in culture (PMID: 32540409). 32540409
BRAF L597V lung adenocarcinoma resistant MK-8353 Preclinical - Patient cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, cells derived from a lung adenocarcinoma patient harboring BRAF L597V were resistant to treatment with MK-8353 in culture (PMID: 32540409). 32540409
BRAF L597V lung adenocarcinoma resistant Vemurafenib Preclinical - Patient cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, cells derived from a lung adenocarcinoma patient harboring BRAF L597V were resistant to treatment with Zelboraf (vemurafenib) in culture (PMID: 32540409). 32540409
BRAF D594G lung adenocarcinoma no benefit Trametinib Case Reports/Case Series Actionable In a clinical case study, a lung adenocarcinoma patient harboring BRAF D594G and TP53 H193L demonstrated stable disease for two months when treated with Mekinist (trametinib), but progressed after four months (PMID: 32540409). 32540409
BRAF L597V lung adenocarcinoma resistant MLN2480 Preclinical - Patient cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, cells derived from a lung adenocarcinoma patient harboring BRAF L597V were resistant to treatment with MLN2480 (TAK-580) in culture (PMID: 32540409). 32540409
BRAF G469A lung adenocarcinoma sensitive LXH 254 Preclinical - Patient cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, cells derived from a lung adenocarcinoma patient harboring BRAF G469A were sensitive to treatment with LXH 254 in culture, demonstrating inhibition of cell growth (PMID: 32540409). 32540409
BRAF L597V lung adenocarcinoma resistant Encorafenib Preclinical - Patient cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, cells derived from a lung adenocarcinoma patient harboring BRAF L597V were resistant to treatment with Braftovi (encorafenib) in culture (PMID: 32540409). 32540409
BRAF L597V lung adenocarcinoma resistant Dabrafenib Preclinical - Patient cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, cells derived from a lung adenocarcinoma patient harboring BRAF L597V were resistant to treatment with Tafinlar (dabrafenib) in culture (PMID: 32540409). 32540409
BRAF L597V lung adenocarcinoma sensitive LXH 254 Preclinical - Patient cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, cells derived from a lung adenocarcinoma patient harboring BRAF L597V were sensitive to treatment with LXH 254 in culture, demonstrating inhibition of cell growth (PMID: 32540409). 32540409
BRAF G469A lung adenocarcinoma resistant MK-8353 Preclinical - Patient cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, cells derived from a lung adenocarcinoma patient harboring BRAF G469A were resistant to treatment with MK-8353 in culture (PMID: 32540409). 32540409
BRAF G469A lung adenocarcinoma resistant Ravoxertinib Preclinical - Patient cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, cells derived from a lung adenocarcinoma patient harboring BRAF G469A were resistant to treatment with Ravoxertinib (GDC-0994) in culture (PMID: 32540409). 32540409
BRAF G469A lung adenocarcinoma resistant Vemurafenib Preclinical - Patient cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, cells derived from a lung adenocarcinoma patient harboring BRAF G469A were resistant to treatment with Zelboraf (vemurafenib) in culture (PMID: 32540409). 32540409
BRAF G469A lung adenocarcinoma resistant Ulixertinib Preclinical - Patient cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, cells derived from a lung adenocarcinoma patient harboring BRAF G469A were resistant to treatment with Ulixertinib (BVD-523) in culture (PMID: 32540409). 32540409
BRAF G469A lung adenocarcinoma resistant MLN2480 Preclinical - Patient cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, cells derived from a lung adenocarcinoma patient harboring BRAF G469A were resistant to treatment with MLN2480 (TAK-580) in culture (PMID: 32540409). 32540409
BRAF L597V lung adenocarcinoma sensitive Trametinib Preclinical - Patient cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, cells derived from a lung adenocarcinoma patient harboring BRAF L597V were sensitive to treatment with Mekinist (trametinib) in culture, demonstrating inhibition of cell growth (PMID: 32540409). 32540409
BRAF G469A lung adenocarcinoma resistant Dabrafenib Preclinical - Patient cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, cells derived from a lung adenocarcinoma patient harboring BRAF G469A were resistant to treatment with Tafinlar (dabrafenib) in culture (PMID: 32540409). 32540409
BRAF L597V lung adenocarcinoma resistant Ravoxertinib Preclinical - Patient cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, cells derived from a lung adenocarcinoma patient harboring BRAF L597V were resistant to treatment with Ravoxertinib (GDC-0994) in culture (PMID: 32540409). 32540409
BRAF G469A lung adenocarcinoma sensitive BGB-283 Preclinical - Patient cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, cells derived from a lung adenocarcinoma patient harboring BRAF G469A were sensitive to treatment with Lifirafenib (BGB-283) in culture, demonstrating inhibition of cell growth (PMID: 32540409). 32540409
BRAF G469A lung adenocarcinoma resistant LY3214996 Preclinical - Patient cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, cells derived from a lung adenocarcinoma patient harboring BRAF G469A were resistant to treatment with LY3214996 in culture (PMID: 32540409). 32540409
BRAF G469A lung adenocarcinoma sensitive Dabrafenib + Trametinib Preclinical - Patient cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, cells derived from a lung adenocarcinoma patient harboring BRAF G469A were sensitive to the combination treatment of Tafinlar (dabrafenib) and Mekinist (trametinib) in culture, demonstrating inhibition of cell growth (PMID: 32540409). 32540409
BRAF L597V lung adenocarcinoma sensitive Dabrafenib + Trametinib Preclinical - Patient cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, cells derived from a lung adenocarcinoma patient harboring BRAF L597V were sensitive to the combination treatment of Tafinlar (dabrafenib) and Mekinist (trametinib) in culture, demonstrating inhibition of cell growth (PMID: 32540409). 32540409