Reference Detail

Ref Type Journal Article
PMID (24205792)
Authors Zhao J, Quan H, Xu Y, Kong X, Jin L, Lou L
Title Flumatinib, a selective inhibitor of BCR-ABL/PDGFR/KIT, effectively overcomes drug resistance of certain KIT mutants.
Journal Cancer science
Vol 105
Issue 1
Date 2014 Jan
URL
Abstract Text Activating mutations in KIT have been associated with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). The tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate has revolutionized the treatment of GISTs. Unfortunately, primary or acquired resistance to imatinib does occur in GISTs and forms a major problem. Although sunitinib malate, a multi-kinase inhibitor, has shown effectiveness against imatinib-resistant GISTs, recent studies have indicated that some imatinib-resistant GISTs harboring secondary mutations in the KIT activation loop were also resistant to sunitinib. Therefore, new drugs capable of overcoming the dual drug resistance of GISTs probably have potential clinical utility. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of flumatinib, an inhibitor of BCR-ABL/PDGFR/KIT, against 32D cells transformed by various KIT mutants and evaluated its potency to overcome the drug resistance of certain mutants. Interestingly, our in vitro study revealed that flumatinib effectively overcame the drug resistance of certain KIT mutants with activation loop mutations (i.e., D820G, N822K, Y823D, and A829P). Our in vivo study consistently suggested that flumatinib had superior efficacy compared with imatinib or sunitinib against 32D cells with the secondary mutation Y823D. Molecular modeling of flumatinib docked to the KIT kinase domain suggested a special mechanism underlying the capability of flumatinib to overcome the drug-resistance conferred by activation loop mutations. These findings suggest that flumatinib could be a promising therapeutic agent against GISTs resistant to both imatinib and sunitinib because of secondary mutations in the activation loop.

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Molecular Profile Treatment Approach
Gene Name Source Synonyms Protein Domains Gene Description Gene Role
Therapy Name Therapy Description
Drug Name Trade Name Synonyms Drug Classes Drug Description
Variant Impact Protein Effect Variant Description Associated with drug Resistance
N822K missense gain of function KIT N822K lies within the activation loop in the protein kinase domain of the Kit protein (PMID: 24205792). N822K results in constitutive activation of Kit, increased Erk1/2 and Stat3 phosphorylation, is transforming in culture (PMID: 24205792), and has been identified as a secondary mutation associated with imatinib-resistance (PMID: 18488160). Y
Molecular Profile Indication/Tumor Type Response Type Therapy Name Approval Status Evidence Type Efficacy Evidence References
KIT V559_V560del Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive Flumatinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing KIT V559_V560del were sensitive to Flumatinib, demonstrating decreased cell proliferation in culture (PMID: 24205792). 24205792
KIT V559D KIT Y823D Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive Flumatinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Flumatinib treatment in transformed cells co-expressing KIT N822K and KIT V559D demonstrated decreased cell proliferation and inhibition of Kit, Erk 1/2, and Stat3 phosphorylation in culture, and led to improved survival in mouse models (PMID: 24205792). 24205792
KIT V559D Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive Flumatinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing KIT V559D were sensitive to Flumatinib, demonstrating decreased cell proliferation in culture and inhibition of Kit, Erk1/2, and Stat3 phosphorylation (PMID: 24205792). 24205792
KIT T417_D419delinsI Advanced Solid Tumor conflicting Imatinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Gleevec (imatinib mesylate) inhibited Kit phosphorylation in transformed cells over expressing KIT T417_D419delinsI in culture (PMID: 16015387). 16015387
KIT T417_D419delinsI Advanced Solid Tumor conflicting Imatinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing KIT T417_D419delinsI were resistant to treatment with Gleevec (imatinib) in culture (PMID: 24205792). 24205792
KIT N822K Advanced Solid Tumor predicted - sensitive Flumatinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing KIT N822K were more sensitive to treatment with Flumatinib in culture compared to Gleevec (imatinib), demonstrating decreased cell proliferation (PMID: 24205792). 24205792
KIT D816Y Advanced Solid Tumor resistant Flumatinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing KIT D816Y were resistant to treatment with Flumatinib in culture (PMID: 24205792). 24205792
KIT T417_D419delinsI Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive Sunitinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing KIT T417_D419delinsI were sensitive to treatment with Sutent (sunitinib), demonstrating decreased cell proliferation (PMID: 24205792). 24205792
KIT V559_V560del Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive Imatinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing KIT V559_V560del were sensitive to Gleevec (imatinib), demonstrating decreased cell proliferation in culture (PMID: 24205792). 24205792
KIT V559D KIT Y823D Advanced Solid Tumor no benefit Imatinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Gleevec (imatinib) treatment in a mouse model with cells expressing KIT V559D and KIT Y823D resulted in shortened survival (PMID: 24205792). 24205792
KIT T670I KIT V559D Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive Sunitinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells co-expressing KIT V559D and KIT T670I were sensitive to treatment with Sutent (sunitinib) in culture, demonstrating decreased cell proliferation (PMID: 24205792). 24205792
KIT I571_D579dup Advanced Solid Tumor predicted - resistant Flumatinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing KIT I571_D579dup (KIT D579_H580insIDPTQLPYD) were moderately resistant to Flumatinib in culture (PMID: 24205792). 24205792
KIT N822K Advanced Solid Tumor predicted - sensitive Sunitinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing KIT N822K were more sensitive to treatment with Sutent (sunitinib) in culture compared to Gleevec (imatinib), demonstrating decreased cell proliferation (PMID: 24205792). 24205792
KIT A502_Y503dup Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive Flumatinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing KIT A502_Y503dup (Y503_F504insAY) were sensitive to Flumatinib in culture, demonstrating decreased cell proliferation (PMID: 24205792). 24205792
KIT V559D KIT Y823D Advanced Solid Tumor no benefit Sunitinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells co-expressing KIT Y823D and KIT V559D were insensitive to Sutent (sunitinib) in culture and in mouse models (PMID: 24205792). 24205792
KIT I571_D579dup Advanced Solid Tumor predicted - resistant Sunitinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing KIT I571_D579dup (KIT D579_H580insIDPTQLPYD) were moderately resistant to Sutent (sunitinib) in culture (PMID: 24205792). 24205792
KIT A829P KIT V559D Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive Flumatinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells co-expressing KIT A829P and KIT V559D were sensitive to Flumatinib in culture, demonstrating decreased cell proliferation and inhibition of Kit, Erk1/2, and Stat3 phosphorylation (PMID: 24205792). 24205792
KIT D820G KIT V559D Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive Flumatinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells co-expressing KIT D820G and KIT V559D were sensitive to Flumatinib in culture, demonstrating decreased cell proliferation (PMID: 24205792). 24205792
KIT N822K Advanced Solid Tumor resistant Imatinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing KIT N822K were resistant to treatment with Gleevec (imatinib) in culture (PMID: 24205792). 24205792
KIT V560D KIT V654A Advanced Solid Tumor resistant Flumatinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells co-expressing KIT V560D and KIT V654A were resistant to Flumatinib in culture (PMID: 24205792). 24205792
KIT D816H Advanced Solid Tumor predicted - sensitive Flumatinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing KIT D816H were more sensitive to treatment with Flumatinib in culture compared to Gleevec (imatinib) (PMID: 24205792). 24205792
KIT N822K KIT V559D Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive Flumatinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells co-expressing KIT N822K and KIT V559D were sensitive to Flumatinib in culture, demonstrating decreased cell proliferation and inhibition of Kit, Erk 1/2, and Stat3 phosphorylation (PMID: 24205792). 24205792
KIT T417_D419delinsI Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive Flumatinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing KIT T417_D419delinsI were sensitive to treatment with Flumatinib, demonstrating decreased cell proliferation (PMID: 24205792). 24205792
KIT D816V Advanced Solid Tumor resistant Cabozantinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing KIT D816V demonstrated resistance to Cometriq (cabozantinib) in culture (PMID: 24205792). 24205792
KIT D816H Advanced Solid Tumor predicted - sensitive Sunitinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing KIT D816H were more sensitive to treatment with Sutent (sunitinib) in culture compared to Gleevec (imatinib) (PMID: 24205792). 24205792
KIT V559_V560del Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive Sunitinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing KIT V559_V560del were sensitive to Sutent (sunitinib), demonstrating decreased cell proliferation in culture (PMID: 24205792). 24205792
KIT A502_Y503dup Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive Imatinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing KIT A502_Y503dup (Y503_F504insAY) were sensitive to Gleevec (imatinib) in culture, demonstrating decreased cell proliferation (PMID: 24205792). 24205792
KIT T670I KIT V560D Advanced Solid Tumor resistant Flumatinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells co-expressing KIT V560D and KIT T670I were resistant to Flumatinib in culture (PMID: 24205792). 24205792
KIT I571_D579dup Advanced Solid Tumor predicted - resistant Imatinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing KIT I571_D579dup (KIT D579_H580insIDPTQLPYD) were moderately resistant to Gleevec (imatinib) in culture (PMID: 24205792). 24205792
KIT D816Y Advanced Solid Tumor resistant Sunitinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing KIT D816Y were resistant to treatment with Sutent (sunitinib) in culture (PMID: 24205792). 24205792
KIT A502_Y503dup Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive Sunitinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing KIT A502_Y503dup (Y503_F504insAY) were sensitive to Sutent (sunitinib) in culture, demonstrating decreased cell proliferation (PMID: 24205792). 24205792
KIT V559D KIT V654A Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive Sunitinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells co-expressing KIT V559D and KIT V654A were sensitive to treatment with Sutent (sunitinib) in culture, demonstrating decreased cell proliferation (PMID: 24205792). 24205792
KIT V559D Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive Imatinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing KIT V559D were sensitive to Gleevec (imatinib), demonstrating decreased cell proliferation in culture and inhibition of Kit, Erk1/2, and Stat3 phosphorylation (PMID: 24205792). 24205792
KIT V559D Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive Imatinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Gleevec (imatinib) decreased KIT signaling, and inhibited growth and induced apoptosis of transformed cells expressing KIT V559D in culture (PMID: 21689725). 21689725
KIT D816Y Advanced Solid Tumor resistant Imatinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing KIT D816Y were resistant to Gleevec (imatinib mesylate) in culture (PMID: 16397263). 16397263
KIT D816Y Advanced Solid Tumor resistant Imatinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing KIT D816Y were resistant to treatment with Gleevec (imatinib) in culture (PMID: 24205792). 24205792
KIT D816V Advanced Solid Tumor resistant Sunitinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing KIT D816V were resistant to treatment with Sutent (sunitinib) in culture (PMID: 24205792). 24205792
KIT D816V Advanced Solid Tumor resistant Sunitinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, KIT D816V mutations demonstrated resistance to Sutent (sunitinib) in a biochemical assay (PMID: 19164557). 19164557
KIT A829P KIT V559D Advanced Solid Tumor no benefit Sunitinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells co-expressing KIT A829P and KIT V559D were insensitive to Sutent (sunitinib) in culture (PMID: 24205792). 24205792
KIT V559D Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive Sunitinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing KIT V559D were sensitive to Sutent (sunitinib), demonstrating decreased cell proliferation in culture and inhibition of Kit, Erk1/2, and Stat3 phosphorylation (PMID: 24205792). 24205792
KIT N822K KIT V559D Advanced Solid Tumor no benefit Sunitinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells co-expressing KIT N822K and KIT V559D were insensitive to Sutent (sunitinib) in culture (PMID: 24205792). 24205792
KIT D816V Advanced Solid Tumor resistant Flumatinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing KIT D816V were resistant to treatment with Flumatinib in culture (PMID: 24205792). 24205792