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Ref Type Journal Article
PMID (31085175)
Authors Smith BD, Kaufman MD, Lu WP, Gupta A, Leary CB, Wise SC, Rutkoski TJ, Ahn YM, Al-Ani G, Bulfer SL, Caldwell TM, Chun L, Ensinger CL, Hood MM, McKinley A, Patt WC, Ruiz-Soto R, Su Y, Telikepalli H, Town A, Turner BA, Vogeti L, Vogeti S, Yates K, Janku F, Abdul Razak AR, Rosen O, Heinrich MC, Flynn DL
Title Ripretinib (DCC-2618) Is a Switch Control Kinase Inhibitor of a Broad Spectrum of Oncogenic and Drug-Resistant KIT and PDGFRA Variants.
Journal Cancer cell
Vol 35
Issue 5
Date 2019 May 13
URL
Abstract Text Ripretinib (DCC-2618) was designed to inhibit the full spectrum of mutant KIT and PDGFRA kinases found in cancers and myeloproliferative neoplasms, particularly in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), in which the heterogeneity of drug-resistant KIT mutations is a major challenge. Ripretinib is a "switch-control" kinase inhibitor that forces the activation loop (or activation "switch") into an inactive conformation. Ripretinib inhibits all tested KIT and PDGFRA mutants, and notably is a type II kinase inhibitor demonstrated to broadly inhibit activation loop mutations in KIT and PDGFRA, previously thought only achievable with type I inhibitors. Ripretinib shows efficacy in preclinical cancer models, and preliminary clinical data provide proof-of-concept that ripretinib inhibits a wide range of KIT mutants in patients with drug-resistant GISTs.

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Molecular Profile Treatment Approach
Gene Name Source Synonyms Protein Domains Gene Description Gene Role
Therapy Name Drugs Efficacy Evidence Clinical Trials
Drug Name Trade Name Synonyms Drug Classes Drug Description
Ripretinib Qinlock DCC-2618|DCC2618 KIT Inhibitor 50 PDGFR-alpha Inhibitor 9 Qinlock (ripretinib) is a dual inhibitor of KIT and PDGFRa, resulting in growth inhibition and anti-tumor effects (PMID: 29439183, PMID: 31085175, PMID: 31201392). Qinlock (ripretinib) is FDA approved for use in patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumor who received 3 or more prior kinase inhibitor therapies (FDA.gov)
Gene Variant Impact Protein Effect Variant Description Associated with drug Resistance
Molecular Profile Indication/Tumor Type Response Type Therapy Name Approval Status Evidence Type Efficacy Evidence References
KIT exon 11 del gastrointestinal stromal tumor predicted - sensitive Imatinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Gleevec (imatinib) inhibited Kit phosphorylation and proliferation of gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells harboring KIT exon 11 deletion in culture (PMID: 31085175). 31085175
PDGFRA D842V Advanced Solid Tumor decreased response Regorafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing PDGFRA D842V demonstrated reduced response to growth inhibition by Stivarga (regorafenib) compared to GIST cells harboring KIT exon 11 deletion in culture (PMID: 31085175). 31085175
KIT N822K acute myeloid leukemia sensitive Ripretinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Qinlock (ripretinib) inhibited proliferation of acute myeloid leukemia cells harboring KIT N822K in culture (PMID: 31085175). 31085175
KIT D816Y mast cell neoplasm predicted - sensitive Midostaurin Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Rydapt (midostaurin) inhibited proliferation of mouse mastocytoma cells harboring KIT D814Y (corresponds to D816Y in human) in culture (PMID: 31085175). 31085175
PDGFRA D842V Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive Midostaurin Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Rydapt (midostaurin) inhibited proliferation of transformed cells expressing PDGFRA D842V in culture (PMID: 31085175). 31085175
KIT D816Y mast cell neoplasm decreased response Sunitinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, mouse mastocytoma cells harboring KIT D814Y (corresponds to D816Y in human) demonstrated reduced response to growth inhibition by Sutent (sunitinib) compared to GIST cells harboring KIT exon 11 deletion in culture (PMID: 31085175). 31085175
KIT exon 11 del gastrointestinal stromal tumor sensitive Regorafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Stivarga (regorafenib) inhibited Kit phosphorylation and proliferation of gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells harboring KIT exon 11 deletion in culture (PMID: 31085175). 31085175
KIT W557_K558del KIT Y823D gastrointestinal stromal tumor sensitive Ripretinib Preclinical - Pdx Actionable In a preclinical study, Qinlock (ripretinib) induced tumor regression in a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model of gastrointestinal stromal tumor harboring KIT W557_K558del and KIT Y823D (PMID: 31085175). 31085175
KIT V560G mast cell neoplasm sensitive Ripretinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Qinlock (ripretinib) inhibited proliferation of mast cells harboring KIT V560G in culture (PMID: 31085175). 31085175
KIT exon 11 del KIT T670I gastrointestinal stromal tumor sensitive Sunitinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Sutent (sunitinib) inhibited proliferation of gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells harboring both KIT exon 11 deletion and KIT T670I in culture (PMID: 31085175). 31085175
KIT exon 11 del KIT D816E gastrointestinal stromal tumor sensitive Ripretinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Qinlock (ripretinib) inhibited proliferation of gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells harboring both KIT exon 11 deletion and KIT D816E in culture (PMID: 31085175). 31085175
KIT V560G KIT D816V mast cell neoplasm sensitive Midostaurin Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Rydapt (midostaurin) inhibited proliferation of mast cells harboring KIT D816V and KIT V560G in culture (PMID: 31085175). 31085175
KIT Y568_L576delinsCV KIT D816E KIT D820Y gastrointestinal stromal tumor predicted - sensitive Ripretinib Case Reports/Case Series Actionable In a Phase I trial, treatment with Qinlock (ripretinib) decreased circulating tumor DNA, resulted in stable disease lasting over 21 months in a patient with gastrointestinal stromal tumor harboring a primary KIT Y568_L576delinsCV mutation and two acquired resistance mutations, KIT D816E and KIT D820Y (PMID: 31085175; NCT02571036). 31085175
KIT exon 11 del KIT D816E gastrointestinal stromal tumor sensitive Midostaurin Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Rydapt (midostaurin) inhibited proliferation of gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells harboring both KIT exon 11 deletion and KIT D816E in culture (PMID: 31085175). 31085175
KIT N822K acute myeloid leukemia predicted - sensitive Sunitinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Sutent (sunitinib) inhibited proliferation of acute myeloid leukemia cells harboring KIT N822K in culture (PMID: 31085175). 31085175
KIT exon 11 del KIT T670I gastrointestinal stromal tumor decreased response Ripretinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells harboring both KIT exon 11 deletion and KIT T670I demonstrated reduced response to growth inhibition by Qinlock (ripretinib) compared to cells harboring KIT exon 11 deletion alone in culture (PMID: 31085175). 31085175
KIT N822K acute myeloid leukemia sensitive Midostaurin Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Rydapt (midostaurin) inhibited proliferation of acute myeloid leukemia cells harboring KIT N822K in culture (PMID: 31085175). 31085175
KIT V559_G565del KIT V654A KIT A829P gastrointestinal stromal tumor predicted - sensitive Ripretinib Case Reports/Case Series Actionable In a Phase I trial, treatment with Qinlock (ripretinib) decreased circulating tumor DNA, resulted in stable disease lasting over 26 months in a patient with gastrointestinal stromal tumor harboring a primary KIT V559_G565del mutation and two acquired resistance mutations, KIT V654A and KIT A829P (PMID: 31085175; NCT02571036). 31085175
KIT exon 11 del KIT T670I gastrointestinal stromal tumor sensitive Midostaurin Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Rydapt (midostaurin) inhibited proliferation of gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells harboring both KIT exon 11 deletion and KIT T670I in culture (PMID: 31085175). 31085175
KIT D816V Advanced Solid Tumor resistant Regorafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing KIT D816V were resistant to Stivarga (regorafenib) in culture (PMID: 31085175). 31085175
KIT exon 11 del KIT T670I gastrointestinal stromal tumor resistant Imatinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells harboring both KIT exon 11 deletion and KIT T670I were resistant to Gleevec (imatinib) in culture (PMID: 31085175). 31085175
KIT V560G KIT D816V mast cell neoplasm resistant Imatinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, mast cells harboring both KIT D816V and KIT V560G were resistant to Gleevec (imatinib) in culture (PMID: 31085175). 31085175
KIT V560G mast cell neoplasm sensitive Imatinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Gleevec (imatinib) inhibited proliferation of mast cells harboring KIT V560G in culture (PMID: 31085175). 31085175
PDGFRA amp lung cancer sensitive Ripretinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Qinlock (ripretinib) inhibited proliferation of lung cancer cells harboring PDGFRA amplification in culture, and resulted in tumor regression in cell line xenograft models (PMID: 31085175). 31085175
KIT exon 11 del KIT T670I gastrointestinal stromal tumor sensitive Regorafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Sutent (sunitinib) inhibited proliferation of gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells harboring both KIT exon 11 deletion and KIT T670I in culture (PMID: 31085175). 31085175
PDGFRA D842V Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive Ripretinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Qinlock (ripretinib) inhibited proliferation of transformed cells expressing PDGFRA D842V in culture (PMID: 31085175). 31085175
KIT V560G KIT D816V mast cell neoplasm sensitive Avapritinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Ayvakit (avapritinib) inhibited proliferation of mast cells harboring KIT D816V and KIT V560G in culture (PMID: 31085175). 31085175
KIT exon 11 del gastrointestinal stromal tumor sensitive Sunitinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Sutent (sunitinib) inhibited Kit phosphorylation and proliferation of gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells harboring KIT exon 11 deletion in culture (PMID: 31085175). 31085175
KIT exon 11 del gastrointestinal stromal tumor sensitive Avapritinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Ayvakit (avapritinib) inhibited Kit phosphorylation and proliferation of gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells harboring KIT exon 11 deletion in culture (PMID: 31085175). 31085175
KIT V560G KIT D816V mast cell neoplasm sensitive Ripretinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Qinlock (ripretinib) inhibited proliferation of mast cells harboring KIT D816V and KIT V560G in culture, and inhibited tumor growth in cell line xenograft models (PMID: 31085175). 31085175
KIT N822K acute myeloid leukemia sensitive Regorafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Stivarga (regorafenib) inhibited proliferation of acute myeloid leukemia cells harboring KIT N822K in culture (PMID: 31085175). 31085175
KIT exon 11 del gastrointestinal stromal tumor sensitive Ripretinib Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, Qinlock (ripretinib) inhibited Kit phosphorylation and proliferation of gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells harboring KIT exon 11 deletion, resulted in tumor regression in cell line xenograft models (PMID: 31085175). 31085175
KIT D816V Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive Ripretinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Qinlock (ripretinib) inhibited proliferation of transformed cells expressing KIT D816V in culture (PMID: 31085175). 31085175
KIT exon11 gastrointestinal stromal tumor sensitive Ripretinib Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, Qinlock (ripretinib) inhibited Kit phosphorylation and proliferation of gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells harboring a KIT exon 11 deletion mutation in culture, and resulted in tumor regression in cell line xenograft models (PMID: 31085175). 31085175
KIT V560G mast cell neoplasm sensitive Avapritinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Ayvakit (avapritinib) inhibited proliferation of mast cells harboring KIT V560G in culture (PMID: 31085175). 31085175
KIT D816Y mast cell neoplasm predicted - resistant Imatinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, mouse mastocytoma cells harboring KIT D814Y (corresponds to D816Y in human) were resistant to Gleevec (imatinib) in culture (PMID: 31085175). 31085175
KIT exon 11 del KIT D816E gastrointestinal stromal tumor decreased response Sunitinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells harboring both KIT exon 11 deletion and KIT D816E demonstrated reduced response to growth inhibition by Sutent (sunitinib) compared to cells harboring KIT exon 11 deletion alone in culture (PMID: 31085175). 31085175
KIT V560G mast cell neoplasm sensitive Regorafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Stivarga (regorafenib) inhibited proliferation of mast cells harboring KIT V560G in culture (PMID: 31085175). 31085175
KIT V560G mast cell neoplasm sensitive Midostaurin Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Rydapt (midostaurin) inhibited proliferation of mast cells harboring KIT V560G in culture (PMID: 31085175). 31085175
KIT D816Y mast cell neoplasm predicted - sensitive Ripretinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Qinlock (ripretinib) inhibited proliferation of mouse mastocytoma cells harboring KIT D814Y (corresponds to D816Y in human) in culture, and resulted in tumor growth inhibition in allograft models (PMID: 31085175). 31085175
KIT V560G KIT D816V mast cell neoplasm resistant Sunitinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, mast cells harboring both KIT D816V and KIT V560G were resistant to Sutent (sunitinib) in culture (PMID: 31085175). 31085175
KIT exon 11 del KIT D816E gastrointestinal stromal tumor sensitive Avapritinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Ayvakit (avapritinib) inhibited proliferation of gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells harboring both KIT exon 11 deletion and KIT D816E in culture (PMID: 31085175). 31085175
KIT exon 11 del KIT D816E gastrointestinal stromal tumor sensitive Imatinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Gleevec (imatinib) inhibited proliferation of gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells harboring both KIT exon 11 deletion and KIT D816E in culture (PMID: 31085175). 31085175
KIT exon 11 del gastrointestinal stromal tumor sensitive Midostaurin Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Rydapt (midostaurin) inhibited Kit phosphorylation and proliferation of gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells harboring KIT exon 11 deletion in culture (PMID: 31085175). 31085175
KIT V560G KIT D816V mast cell neoplasm resistant Regorafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, mast cells harboring both KIT D816V and KIT V560G were resistant to Stivarga (regorafenib) in culture (PMID: 31085175). 31085175
KIT exon 11 del KIT T670I gastrointestinal stromal tumor sensitive Avapritinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Ayvakit (avapritinib) inhibited proliferation of gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells harboring both KIT exon 11 deletion and KIT T670I in culture (PMID: 31085175). 31085175
KIT V560G mast cell neoplasm sensitive Sunitinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Sutent (sunitinib) inhibited proliferation of mast cells harboring KIT V560G in culture (PMID: 31085175). 31085175
KIT D816Y mast cell neoplasm predicted - resistant Regorafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, mouse mastocytoma cells harboring KIT D814Y (corresponds to D816Y in human) were resistant to Stivarga (regorafenib) in culture (PMID: 31085175). 31085175
KIT N822K acute myeloid leukemia decreased response Imatinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, acute myeloid leukemia cells harboring KIT N822K demonstrated reduced response to growth inhibition by Gleevec (imatinib) compared to GIST cells harboring KIT exon 11 deletion in culture (PMID: 31085175). 31085175
KIT exon 11 del KIT D816E gastrointestinal stromal tumor sensitive Regorafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Stivarga (regorafenib) inhibited proliferation of gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells harboring both KIT exon 11 deletion and KIT D816E in culture (PMID: 31085175). 31085175