Reference Detail

Ref Type Journal Article
PMID (20538618)
Authors Whittaker S, Kirk R, Hayward R, Zambon A, Viros A, Cantarino N, Affolter A, Nourry A, Niculescu-Duvaz D, Springer C, Marais R
Title Gatekeeper mutations mediate resistance to BRAF-targeted therapies.
Journal Science translational medicine
Vol 2
Issue 35
Date 2010 Jun 9
URL
Abstract Text BRAF is a serine-threonine-specific protein kinase that is mutated in 2% of human cancers. Oncogenic BRAF is a validated therapeutic target that constitutively activates mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling, driving tumor cell proliferation and survival. Drugs designed to target BRAF have been developed, but it is difficult to prove that they mediate their antitumor effects by inhibiting BRAF rather than by working through off-target effects. We generated drug-resistant versions of oncogenic BRAF by mutating the gatekeeper residue. Signaling by the mutant proteins was resistant to the small-molecule inhibitor sorafenib, but sorafenib still inhibited the growth of tumors driven by the mutant protein. In contrast, both BRAF signaling and tumor growth were resistant to another RAF drug, PLX4720. These data provide unequivocal evidence that sorafenib mediates its antitumor effects in a manner that is independent of its ability to target oncogenic BRAF, whereas PLX4720 inhibits tumor growth by targeting oncogenic BRAF directly.

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Molecular Profile Treatment Approach
Gene Name Source Synonyms Protein Domains Gene Description Gene Role
Therapy Name Drugs Efficacy Evidence Clinical Trials
Drug Name Trade Name Synonyms Drug Classes Drug Description
Variant Impact Protein Effect Variant Description Associated with drug Resistance
T529I missense unknown BRAF T529I is a gatekeeper mutation that lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (PMID: 20538618). T529I has been demonstrated to confer resistance to Raf inhibitors in the context of BRAF V600E (PMID: 20538618), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Apr 2019). Y
T529M missense unknown BRAF T529M lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). T529M has been demonstrated to result in resistance to Raf inhibitors in the context of BRAF V600E (PMID: 20538618), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019). Y
T529N missense unknown BRAF T529N lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). T529N has been demonstrated to result in resistance to Raf inhibitors in the context of BRAF V600E (PMID: 20538618, PMID: 20807807), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019). Y
Molecular Profile Indication/Tumor Type Response Type Therapy Name Approval Status Evidence Type Efficacy Evidence References
BRAF V600E BRAF T529I Advanced Solid Tumor predicted - resistant SB590885 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing BRAF V600E and the gatepkeeper mutation BRAF T529I were insensitive to SB590885-mediated inhibition of ERK signaling in culture (PMID: 20538618). 20538618
BRAF V600E BRAF T529N Advanced Solid Tumor resistant SB590885 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing BRAF V600E and the gatepkeeper mutation BRAF T529N were insensitive to SB590885 in culture (PMID: 20538618). 20538618
BRAF V600E BRAF T529M Advanced Solid Tumor predicted - resistant PLX4720 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing BRAF V600E and the gatepkeeper mutation BRAF T529M were insensitive to PLX4720-mediated inhibition of ERK signaling in culture (PMID: 20538618). 20538618
BRAF V600E BRAF T529N Advanced Solid Tumor resistant PLX4720 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing BRAF V600E and the gatepkeeper mutation BRAF T529N were insensitive to PLX4720 in culture (PMID: 20538618). 20538618
BRAF V600E BRAF T529N Advanced Solid Tumor resistant RAF265 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing BRAF V600E and the gatepkeeper mutation BRAF T529N were insensitive to RAF265 in culture (PMID: 20538618). 20538618
BRAF V600E BRAF T529M Advanced Solid Tumor predicted - sensitive CI-1040 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, CI-1040 (PD184352) inhibited Erk phosphorylation in transformed cells expressing BRAF V600E and the gatekeeper mutation BRAF T529M in culture (PMID: 20538618). 20538618
BRAF V600E Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive RAF265 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, RAF265 inhibited Erk phosphorylation and cell proliferation in BRAF V600E expressing cells in culture (PMID: 20538618). 20538618
BRAF V600E BRAF T529I Advanced Solid Tumor predicted - resistant PLX4720 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing BRAF V600E and the gatepkeeper mutation BRAF T529I were insensitive to PLX4720-mediated inhibition of ERK signaling in culture (PMID: 20538618). 20538618
BRAF V600E BRAF T529N Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive CI-1040 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, CI-1040 (PD184352) inhibited Erk phosphorylation and growth of transformed cells expressing BRAF V600E and the gatekeeper mutation BRAF T529N in culture (PMID: 20538618). 20538618
BRAF V600E Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive PLX4720 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, PLX4720 inhibited Erk phosphorylation and cell proliferation of transformed cells expression BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 20538618). 20538618
BRAF V600E Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive SB590885 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, SB590885 inhibited inhibited Erk phosphorylation and cell proliferation of transformed cells expression BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 20538618). 20538618
BRAF V600E BRAF T529I Advanced Solid Tumor predicted - sensitive Sorafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Nexavar (sorafenib) inhibited kinase activity in vitro, and downstream Erk phosphorylation in cells expressing BRAF V600E and the gatekeeper mutation BRAF T529I to a similar degree as transformed cells expressing BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 20538618). 20538618
BRAF V600E BRAF T529M Advanced Solid Tumor predicted - resistant SB590885 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing BRAF V600E and the gatepkeeper mutation BRAF T529M were insensitive to SB590885-mediated inhibition of ERK signaling in culture (PMID: 20538618). 20538618
BRAF V600E BRAF T529N Advanced Solid Tumor conflicting Sorafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing BRAF V600E and the gatepkeeper mutation BRAF T529N were insensitive to Nexavar (sorafenib)-mediated inhibition of Erk phosphorylation but were equally as sensitive to Nexavar (sorafenib)-mediated growth inhibition as transformed cells expressing BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 20538618). 20538618
BRAF V600E BRAF T529M Advanced Solid Tumor predicted - sensitive Sorafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Nexavar (sorafenib) inhibited kinase activity in vitro, and downstream Erk phosphorylation in cells expressing BRAF V600E and the gatekeeper mutation BRAF T529M to a similar degree as transformed cells expressing BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 20538618). 20538618
BRAF V600E BRAF T529I Advanced Solid Tumor predicted - sensitive RAF265 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, RAF265 inhibited kinase activity in vitro, and downstream Erk phosphorylation in cells expressing BRAF V600E and the gatekeeper mutation BRAF T529I to a similar degree as transformed cells expressing BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 20538618). 20538618
BRAF V600E BRAF T529I Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive CI-1040 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, CI-1040 (PD184352) inhibited Erk phosphorylation in transformed cells expressing BRAF V600E and the gatekeeper mutation BRAF T529I in culture (PMID: 20538618). 20538618
BRAF V600E BRAF T529M Advanced Solid Tumor predicted - sensitive RAF265 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, RAF265 inhibited kinase activity in vitro, and downstream Erk phosphorylation in cells expressing BRAF V600E and the gatekeeper mutation BRAF T529M to a similar degree as transformed cells expressing BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 20538618). 20538618
BRAF V600E Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive CI-1040 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, CI-1040 (PD184352) inhibited Erk phosphorylation and growth of transformed cells expressing BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 20538618). 20538618